After an earthquake disrupts the supply of clean drinking water to many residents of a city, the city restricts grocery stores from raising the prices they charge for bottled water. If no side markets arise, which of the following statements is true?
1) The law restricting a price increase will exacerbate the water shortage (or “excess demand”).
2) Water will be allocated to the consumers with the highest willingness to pay for it.
3) Water will be allocated to the consumers who need it most.